Ana McDonald's Academic English I
San Marcos High School
Language Arts Classroom Building, Room 214


Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)
New Skills in italics

§110.42. English I (One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students enrolled in English I continue to increase and refine their communication skills. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions (essays) on a regular basis. Students edit their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English and produce final, error-free drafts. In English I, students practice all forms of writing. An emphasis is placed on organizing logical arguments with clearly expressed related definitions, theses, and evidence. Students write to persuade and to report and describe. English I students read extensively in multiple genres from world literature such as reading selected stories, dramas, novels, and poetry originally written in English or translated to English from oriental, classical Greek, European, African, South American, and North American cultures. Students learn literary forms and terms associated with selections being read. Students interpret the possible influences of the historical context on a literary work. (Students should know citations and formats for research reports and how to strengthen presentations using visuals and media.)

(2)  For students enrolled in English I whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(3)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English I are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations in English I as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(5)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, ". . . each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Writing/purposes. The student writes in a variety of forms, including business, personal, literary, and persuasive texts, for various audiences and purposes. The student is expected to:
(A)  write in a variety of forms using effective word choice, structure, and sentence forms with emphasis on organizing logical arguments with clearly related definitions, theses, and evidence; write persuasively; write to report and describe; and write poems, plays, and stories (S&S1WAI);
(B)  write in a voice and style appropriate to audience and purpose (S&S1WAI); and
(C)  organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence, logical progression, and support for ideas (S&S1WAI).

(By 8th grade, students should write legibly and use literary devices (suspense, dialogue, and figurative language), precise wording, and transitions. They should write to solve problems, record, argue, inform, entertain, and reflect. They should be able to email messages and snail-mail letters.)

(2)  Writing/writing processes. The student uses recursive writing processes when appropriate. The student is expected to:
(A)  use prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan (S&S1WAI);
(B)  develop drafts, alone and collaboratively, by organizing and reorganizing content and by refining style to suit occasion, audience, and purpose (S&S1WAI);
(C)  proofread writing for appropriateness of organization, content, style, and conventions (S&S1WU - TAKS 4/5/6) (S&S1WAI);
(D)  refine selected pieces frequently to publish for general and specific audiences (S&S1WAI); and
(E)  use technology for aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing (S&S1WAI).

(By 8th grade, they should be able to create graphic organizers, notes, and logs; categorize ideas, organize into paragraphs, and blend paragraphs into an essay; revise by adding, elaborating, deleting, combining, and rearranging; edit for usage, sentence structure, and word choice; and use reference materials to write, revise, & edit.)

(3)  Writing/grammar/usage/conventions/spelling. The student relies increasingly on the conventions and mechanics of written English, including the rules of grammar and usage, to write clearly and effectively. The student is expected to:
(A)  produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct use of the conventions of punctuation and capitalization such as italics and ellipses (S&S1WAI);
(B)  demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, verb forms, and parallelism (S&S1WU - TAKS 5/6) (S&S1WAI);
(C)  compose increasingly more involved sentences that contain gerunds, participles, and infinitives in their various functions (S&S1WU - TAKS 5/6) (S&S1WAI); and
(D)  produce error-free writing in the final draft (S&S1WAI).

(By 8th grade, they should use complete sentences (compound & complex) & standard usage. They should know dependent clauses, punctuation (including apostrophes), and parts of speech. They should use conjunctions, adjectives (comparative & supurlative), adverbs, prepositional phrases, subject-verb agreement, tenses (including perfect & progressive), and correct pronoun case (third person to refer to an individual is forbidden) and referents.

(4)  Writing/inquiry/research. The student uses writing as a tool for learning. The student is expected to:
(A)  use writing to formulate questions, refine topics, and clarify ideas; (S&S1AR)
(B)  use writing to discover, organize, and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic; (S&S1AR) (S&S1WU)
(C)  compile information from primary and secondary sources in systematic ways using available technology;
(D)  represent information in a variety of ways such as graphics, conceptual maps, and learning logs;
(E)  use writing as a study tool to clarify and remember information;
(F)  compile written ideas and representations into reports, summaries, or other formats and draw conclusions; and
(G)  analyze strategies that writers in different fields use to compose (S&S1WAI).

(By 8th grade, they should read to research. They should be able to use text structures and graphics to locate information and to organize their own writing; evaluate their research to create new questions; take notes, summarize & outline text; form new questions based on research; and use visuals or media to present research; summarize & organize info from multiple sources; and cite sources.)

(5)  Writing/evaluation. The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writings of others. The student is expected to:
(A)  evaluate writing for both mechanics and content (S&S1WAI); and
(B)  respond productively to peer review of his/her own work.

(By 8th, students should be able to apply criteria from a rubric, evaluate own writing for purpose, analyze examples & use as models, review a portfolio for strengths & weaknesses & set goals for future.)

(6)  Reading/word identification/vocabulary development. The student uses a variety of strategies to read unfamiliar words and to build vocabulary. The student is expected to:
(A)  expand vocabulary through wide reading, listening, and discussing; (S&S1V) (S&S1IR) (S&S1C&C) (S&S1C&S&A) (S&S1IRMSP)
(B)  rely on context to determine meanings of words and phrases such as figurative language, idioms, multiple meaning words, and technical vocabulary; (S&S1AR) (S&S1V - TAKS 1) (S&S1C&C - TAKS 1)
(C)  apply meanings of prefixes, roots, and suffixes in order to comprehend (S&S1V - TAKS 1);
(D)  research word origins, including Anglo-Saxon, Latin, and Greek words; (S&S1V)
(E)  use reference material such as glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine precise meanings and usage; (S&S1V - TAKS 1) and
(F)  identify the relation of word meanings in analogies, homonyms, synonyms/antonyms, and connotation/denotation. (S&S1V - coded separately as 6F & G)

(7)  Reading/comprehension. The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:
(A)  establish a purpose for reading such as to discover, interpret, and enjoy (S&S1AR) (S&S1IR) (S&S1C&C) (S&S1C&S&A) (S&S1IRMSP);
(B)  draw upon his/her own background to provide connection to texts (S&S1AR) (S&S1C&C) (S&S1C&S&A);
(C)  monitor reading strategies and modify them when understanding breaks down such as rereading, using resources, and questioning (S&S1AR) (S&S1IR) (S&S1C&C) (S&S1C&S&A) (S&S1IRMSP);
(D)  construct images such as graphic organizers based on text descriptions and text structures (S&S1C&C) (S&S1C&S&A);
(E)  analyze text structures such as compare and contrast, cause and effect, and chronological ordering;
(F)  identify main ideas and their supporting details (S&S1IR) (S&S1C&C - TAKS 7F) (S&S1C&S&A) (S&S1IRMSP);
(G)  summarize texts (S&S1AR - TAKS 1) (S&S1IR - combined w/ 7F - TAKS 1) (S&S1C&C - combined w/ 7F -TAKS 1) (S&S1C&S&A - combined w/ 7F) (S&S1IRMSP - TAKS 1 - combined w/ 7F);
(H)  draw inferences such as conclusions, generalizations, and predictions and support them from text (S&S1AR - TAKS3 - ADD "and experience") (S&S1C&C - coded as 7G - TAKS 3) (S&S1C&S&A - coded as 7H);
(I)  use study strategies such as skimming and scanning, note taking, outlining, and using study-guide questions to better understand texts; and
(J)  read silently with comprehension for a sustained period of time (S&S1AR) (S&S1IR) (S&S1C&C) (S&S1C&S&A) (S&S1IRMSP).

(By 8th grade, students should know how to search text for information, how to paraphrase, how to pre-read, question, reread, & record, and how to understand levels of questions (open-ended, literal, & interpretative.)

(8)  Reading/variety of texts. The student reads extensively and intensively for different purposes in varied sources, including world literature. The student is expected to:
(A)  read to be entertained, to appreciate a writer's craft, to be informed, to take action, and to discover models to use in his/her own writing (S&S1IR - coded 8B - TAKS 1);
(B)  read in such varied sources as diaries, journals, textbooks, maps, newspapers, letters, speeches, memoranda, electronic texts, and other media (S&S1CV);
(C)  read world literature, including classic and contemporary works; and
(D)  interpret the possible influences of the historical context on a literary work.

(By 8th grade, students hould know how to follow written directions.)

(9)  Reading/culture. The student reads widely, including world literature, to increase knowledge of his/her own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements across cultures. The student is expected to:
(A)  recognize distinctive and shared characteristics of cultures through reading (S&S1C&S&A); and
(B)  compare text events with his/her own and other readers' experiences.

(In 8th grade, the multi-cultural connection focused on listening.)

(10)  Reading/literary response. The student expresses and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:
(A)  respond to informational and aesthetic elements in texts such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, and dramatizations (S&S1AR) (S&S1C&C) (English II TEKS say "enactments");
(B)  use elements of text to defend his/her own responses and interpretations (S&S1WU - TAKS 2/3) (S&S1C&C - TAKS 2/3) (S&S1C&S&A); and
(C)  compare reviews of literature, film, and performance with his/her own responses.

(In 8th grade, students support responses with their personal experience. In 9th, personal experience is dropped in favor of evidence from the text. The TAKS does encourage personal experience on the 10th & 11th grade essay.)

(11)  Reading/literary concepts. The student analyzes literary elements for their contributions to meaning in literary texts. The student is expected to:
(A)  recognize the theme (general observation about life or human nature) within a text (S&S1C&C - TAKS 2 - ADD "compare and contrast") (S&S1C&S&A - TAKS 2 - ADD "compare and contrast");
(B)  analyze the relevance of setting and time frame to text's meaning;
(C)  analyze characters and identify time and point of view (S&S1C&S&A - TAKS 2);
(D)  identify basic conflicts (S&S1C&C - TAKS 2 - ADD "compare & contrast" when coded as 11C);
(E)  analyze the development of plot in narrative text (S&S1C&C - coded as 11E);
(F)  recognize and interpret important symbols;
(G)  recognize and interpret poetic elements like metaphor, simile, personification, and the effect of sound on meaning; and
(H)  understand literary forms and terms such as author, drama, biography, autobiography, myth, tall tale, dialogue, tragedy and comedy, structure in poetry, epic, ballad, protagonist, antagonist, paradox, analogy, dialect, and comic relief as appropriate to the selections being read (S&S1C&C) (S&S1C&S&A - TAKS 2 - ADD "personal essay & vignette - also coded as 11F).

(By 8th grade, they should understand text structure, genre (including fables, limericks, plays), know flashbacks & foreshadowing, style, tone, mood, and also how author's point of view affects a text; use figurative language in their writing)

(12)  Reading/analysis/evaluation. The student reads critically to evaluate texts. The student is expected to:
(A)  analyze characteristics of text, including its structure, word choices, and intended audience;
(B)  evaluate the credibility of information sources and determine the writer's motives;
(C)  analyze text to evaluate the logical argument and to determine the mode of reasoning used such as induction and deduction; and
(D)  analyze texts such as editorials, documentaries, and advertisements for bias and use of common persuasive techniques (intro to persuasive focus of English II).

(13)  Reading/inquiry/research. The student reads in order to research self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:
(A)  generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions;
(B)  locate appropriate print and non-print information using texts and technical resources, periodicals and book indices, including databases and the Internet;
(C)  organize and convert information into different forms such as charts, graphs, and drawings;
(D)  adapt researched material for presentation to different audiences and for different purposes, and cite sources completely; and
(E)  draw conclusions from information gathered.

(14)  Listening/speaking/critical listening. The student listens attentively for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:
(A)  focus attention on the speaker's message (S&S1CV);
(B)  use knowledge of language and develop vocabulary to interpret accurately the speaker's message;
(C)  monitor speaker's message for clarity and understanding such as asking relevant questions to clarify understanding; and
(D)  formulate and provide effective verbal and nonverbal feedback.
(?) engage in critical & reflective listening (S&S1CV - coded as 14B)

(Should know how to take notes of, organize, summarize, interpret speaker's message, & understand main idea and supporting evidence of oral presentations.)

(15)  Listening/speaking/evaluation. The student listens to analyze, appreciate, and evaluate oral performances and presentations. The student is expected to:
(A)  listen and respond appropriately to presentations and performances of peers or published works such as original essays or narratives, interpretations of poetry, or individual or group performances of scripts;
(B)  identify and analyze the effect of artistic elements within literary texts such as character development, rhyme, imagery, and language (Should understand aesthetic language);
(C)  evaluate informative and persuasive presentations of peers, public figures, and media presentations;
(D)  evaluate artistic performances of peers, public presenters, and media presentations; and
(E)  use audience feedback to evaluate his/her own effectiveness and set goals for future presentations.

(16)  Listening/speaking/purposes. The student speaks clearly and effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences. The student is expected to:
(A)  use the conventions of oral language effectively;
(B)  use informal, standard, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of purpose, audience, occasion, and task;
(C)  prepare, organize, and present a variety of informative messages effectively;
(D)  use effective verbal and nonverbal strategies in presenting oral messages;
(E)  ask clear questions for a variety of purposes and respond appropriately to the questions of others; and
(F)  make relevant contributions in conversations and discussions.


(17)  Listening/speaking/presentations. The student prepares, organizes, and presents informative and persuasive oral messages. The student is expected to:
(A)  present and advance a clear thesis and support the major thesis with logical points or arguments;
(B)  choose valid evidence, proofs, or examples to support claims;
(C)  use appropriate and effective appeals (pathos, ethos, logos?) to support points or claims; and
(D)  use effective verbal and nonverbal strategies such as pitch and tone of voice, posture, and eye contact.

(18)  Listening/speaking/literary interpretation. The student prepares, organizes, and presents literary interpretations. The student is expected to:
(A)  make valid interpretations of literary texts such as telling stories, interpreting poems, stories, or essays (S&S1IR) (S&S1IRMSP);and
(B)  analyze purpose, audience, and occasion to choose effective verbal and nonverbal strategies such as pitch and tone of voice, posture, and eye contact.

(19)  Viewing/representing/interpretation. The student understands and interprets visual representations. The student is expected to:
(A)  describe how meanings are communicated through elements of design, including shape, line, color, and texture (S&S1CV);
(B)  analyze relationships, ideas, and cultures as represented in various media (S&S1CV); and
(C)  distinguish the purposes of various media forms such as informative texts, entertaining texts, and advertisements (S&S1CV).

(20)  Viewing/representing/analysis. The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual representations. The student is expected to:
(A)  investigate the source of a media presentation or production such as who made it and why it was made (S&S1CV);
(B)  deconstruct media to get the main idea of the message's content (S&S1CV);
(C)  evaluate and critique the persuasive techniques of media messages such as glittering generalities, logical fallacies, and symbols (S&S1CV);
(D)  recognize how visual and sound techniques or design convey messages in media such as special effects, editing, camera angles, reaction shots, sequencing, and music (S&S1CV);
(E)  recognize genres such as nightly news, newsmagazines, and documentaries and identify the unique properties of each (S&S1CV); and
(F)  compare, contrast, and critique various media coverage of the same event such as in newspapers, television, and on the Internet (S&S1CV).

(By 8th grade, they should be able to understand message & meaning. They should know how media genres influence & inform and be able to compare & contrast print, visual, and film versions of a story.)

(21)  Viewing/representing/production. The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to:
(A)  examine the effect of media on constructing his/her own perception of reality (S&S1CV);
(B)  use a variety of forms and technologies such as videos, photographs, and web pages to communicate specific messages (S&S1CV);
(C)  use a range of techniques to plan and create a media text and reflect critically on the work produced (S&S1CV);
(D)  create media products to include a billboard, cereal box, short editorial, and a three- minute documentary or print ad to engage specific audiences; and
(E)  create, present, test, and revise a project and analyze a response, using data-gathering techniques such as questionnaires, group discussions, and feedback forms.